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ANUBHASHYA

Introduction:

The following appeared as a serial posting by Sri Ramachandran in Dvaita.org two decades back. Anubhashya, which is traditionally recited everyday by Madhvas, summarises beautifully the tenets of Tatvavada also drawing our attention to the source texts, derivation and interpretation etc of the sacred Sadagamas – Vedas inclusive of Upanishaths, Pancharathra, Mahabharata, Moola Ramayana and the Satvika puranas like Bhagavata and Vishnu Purana.. scholarly works like Chandrika by Sri Vyasaraja and Sheshachandrika by Sri Raghunatha Tirtha bring out how extraordinary this composition is in its brevity, comprehensiveness, all inclusive nature and fidelity coupled with total internal consistency. Only a Sarvajna and Abhimani deva of Vedas with the caliber of Chathurmukha Brahma himself, or the incarnation of Mukhya Prana, our Srimadacharya could have given its composition on the eve of a Sadhana Dvadashi so that the full recitation is equivalent to recitation of Madhva Bhashya in full.

We, the shishyas of Sri Vyasaraja matha, who have the unique distinction of belonging to a such a scholarly lineage - The Chandrika series was a gift of our Gurus, along with the great Bhashya Dipika, which as the name suggests enlightens us about Sri Madhva Bhashya. Let our present travails not make us forget our unique Parampare of Ascetics, Scholars and Statesmen.

We are including here the verbatim contents of this book which is a simple, summarized translation of Anubhashya. The original Sanskrit shlokas are not included, as they can be easily learnt by-heart and remembered when studying this book. Reciting the Anubhashya, while remembering the meanings of the statements made simultaneously is very efficacious and will surely get us the blessings of Acharya Madhva.

NAPSRao. .   

SRI ANUBHASYA BY

SRIMAN MADHVACHARYA

Translated by C.S. NARAYANA RAO

The sutras of Badarayana form Para Vidya as they proclaim Sriman Narayana as the Para, the Highest having no one equal to Him.  Even the Vedas cannot be as Para Vidya if they are studied without the help of the Sutras.

This unique importance of the Sutras have made our Acharya to write four commentaries on them:

1.  Bhasya - Purnapragna Darshana

2.   Anu-Vyakhyana

3.   Nyaya Vivarna

4.   Anu Bhasya

The  greatness  of  Sri  Anubhasya  has  been  wonderfully described by our Holiness  Sri  Parimalacharya  .  His  Holiness  compares Sri Madhva to Sri Krishna  and  Anu Bhasya to universe shown to Yashoda in His mouth.  As the universe in His mouth was complete in every detail, wanting nothing, so also the Anu Bhasya ,  though an epitome, is complete, bringing out the essence of every Adhikarana and every Sutra of Sri Badarayana.  Sri Krishna showed  to Yashoda the Universe in His mouth without the least exertion. So was Anu Bhasya  delivered to the Sishyas of Madhva without any exertion. It was a Sadhani Dwadashi and the Sishyas had no time to do the daily parayana of the Bhasya before sitting at meals.  The Banana leaves had been spread and the sishyas  could  not  make  the Bhagavatpadacharya wait.  Sad at heart, they sat.   The  Merciful  Master,  Sri  Madhwa,  knowing this, gave out the Anu Bhasya  offhand,  to  the  great  surprise  of  the Sishyas. Happily did the Sishyas  begin  to recite sloka after sloka as their Master went on singing out offhand.  By the time they had dwadasha namaas traced on their person, lo!, the Anu Bhasya had been sung and they were ready to take their meals.

II Sri Gurubhyo Namaha. Sri Hanumad Bheema Madhvantargata Sri

Rama Krishna Vedavyasaatmaka Sri Lakshmi Hayagreeva Namaha II

HARIH OM

The  Sutras  of  Badarayana are explained after bowing down to Narayana, my direct  Guru, who is the abode of numberless heavenly (apraakrita) blissful qualities,  who  is  completely  free  from all defects, who alone is to be known  as  the Highest and the Most Supreme (blissful) and who alone is the final goal of all Sattwic jivas.

This  Mangalacharana  sloka of Sri Madhva of his Anu Bhasya not only serves as  a  benedictory  prayer  but  also  as  a  synopsis  of  the Sutras of Badarayana.   The  564  Sutras  are  divided into four chapters.  The first proclaims  Narayana  as  the  abode  of  myriads  of  heavenly and blissful qualities.   The  second  chapter  establishes how Narayana alone is “Dosha varjita”  ie.  Completely  free from all defects.  The third tells us how a Mumukshu,  one  desiring  moksha,  must  have bhakti coupled with vairagya. Guru  bhakti  and  Vishnu bhakti alone would help him to gain confirmed and unshakable  knowledge that only Sri Vishnu is the greatest Lord ruling over the  entire  universe.  It also lays down how Lord Vishnu whose grace alone brings us Moksha, should be meditated upon.  This is summed up by a word “Jneyam” in the Mangalacharana  sloka.   The Fourth Chapter tells us that Vishnu is the final Goal.   It also tells us how Moksha is attained? “ Gamyam”.

ADI SHLOKA:

 “Narayanam Gunaih Sarvaih Udheernam Dosha Varjitam

Jneyam Gamyam Gurumschapi Natva Sutrartha Uccyate”

SAMANVAYADHYAYA

Summary meanings: (Every Vedic Text primarily proclaims Vishnu)

PADA ONE

Sri  Vishnu  alone  is  to  be  meditated  upon  by  those  who want Moksha (Vijijnasya).   The  right  knowledge  of  only  Him  is  to be attained by listening  to  His attributes, leelas and glory which are essentially true, as  described  by  really  devout  people, by thinking over and over of the knowledge  got and by meditating on Him as the only independent creator, as the only Independent and therefore true sustainer and the true destroyer of all this  animate  and  inanimate creation (Sarvakarta).  It is only Vishnu who can liberate souls or keep them in eternal bondage of samsara of birth and death or keep jivas in etenal hell.  It is again He who grants the right knowledge of Himself to satwic souls.  He doesn’t enable the really wicked people to gain right knowledge of Himself.  Again, it is Lord Vishnu who alone propels every living being to act.  So, only Vishnu is Sarvakarta.

Aagamoditaha  -   All  the Vedas and Sat Shastras describe only Vishnu as Creator  etc,  and  they sing primarily only to the praise of Vishnu alone.

Though He is too great to be known or described in full, He is not Avachya (or,  not-at-all  describable  through words). “Ikshathe” - Through the Sad  Upadesha  of  Sri  Chaturmukha  Brahma who is the greatest amongst the jivas,  Vasudeva is known.  And He is known through his attributes.  So, He is  not  avachya.  The Vedas declare that every sentence, every name, every word, every syllable and every sound denote Him and as every word in virtue of  its  root  meaning denotes some attribute or other, it follows that Sri Vishnu  is  the  abode  of  numberless heavenly blissful attributes. Such a knowledge of  Supremacy  of Vishnu can be had only when Vedas are read in the  proper way.  The proper way to understand the real meaning of any text is  to  arrive at what it really means only after taking into consideration how  the text begins and ends, what it tries to emphasise throughout by way of  repetition  and  also  by  seeing that the meaning so arrived at is not opposed  to  sound  logic supported by Vedas and Sat-Shastras.  We must also see that the meaning arrived at is corroborated by other texts of the Vedas and Sat-Shastras.  We must also take into account the special features described in the text. If the Vedas are understood in this way, we will see that Vishnu is the Parabrahma of the Vedas, and that He is not Avachya.

Samanvayaath  Ikshatehe  ?  It  is only Lord Vishnu who is Poornananda or Anandamaya  ie.  One ever full of, and ever overflowing with real, unmixed bliss.   Annamaya mentioned in the Vedas is Sri Vishnu only, as He is like Anna (or food) for the whole Universe. The whole Universe depends on Sri Vishnu for sustenance the way we depend on food.  He is also Annamaya ie. One  having  the  greatest  food, as He swallows the entire Universe during pralaya.  He is the Pranamaya as He makes all jivas act.

Only Vishnu is Sarvajna,  in  reality, Omniscient, for only He knows everything in detail, its  past,  its  present,  and  its  future  in  all its aspects.  So He is Vijnanamaya  of  the Vedas.  By saying that Vishnu alone is Anandamaya, the Sutrakara only suggests that He is the abode of infinite blissful qualities like  Poornasaktitva,  Poornagambhiritva, Poornasaulabhatva, etc, spoken of in  Vedas  is  only Narayana (like, Antaraha ? the One who is within).  The “Akasha  praised in Vedas is also He. This is easily seen from the special attributes  mentioned  there  and  the  Vedas  declare  that these special attributes are found only in Vishnu and none else.

Praneta” ? How can Mukhyaprana,the Deva of Breath be called “primarily” by the  word  Prana  ie.  “One who makes others act”, when he himself is acted upon, as  the  Vedas  declare,  by  Sri Vishnu?  Thus, the real “Prana” is Vishnu as  there  is  no one, however great, that is not acted upon by Sri Vishnu. But, Narayana is not made to act by anyone.

In the Agni Suktha, it is said that the thing placed in the heart of jivas is  light.  This light is Narayana and no one else, as in the same suktha, this  light  is  spoken  of  as being beyond the complete grasp of ears and eyes.  This characteristic of not being completely understood by the senses and  deities  presiding  over  them  is attributed in Rig Veda only to Lord Narayana.  He is known as Adhokshaja as He cannot be grasped by senses.

Again, the Chandogya Upanishad says “The light shining beyond heavens is Gayatri”.   The same passage also says “He sings and helps thereby to cross the  ocean  of  samsara”.   Sri  Vishnu alone, Vedas declare, is capable of saving   jivas  from  samsara  and  no  one  else  can.   So this  special characteristic of being capable of saving one from samsara mentioned in the text  determines  who  exactly is denoted by word “Gayatri”, as also by the strength  of  its  root  meaning  Gayatri  and “Trayathi cha” rightly and primarily  means  Narayana  alone.   Similarly, all names occuring in the Vedas,  though  they  are  commonly used to denote those other than Vishnu, means primarily Sri Vishnu alone.

PADA TWO

Only  Vishnu  is  omnipresent  as  He  alone  pervades everything.   He is “Sarvagata”.   It  is  Sri  Vishnu who destroys all by swallowing all at the time  of  pralaya  and  who  eats  the  good fruits of all jivas.  So He is “Attha  the  Great   Eater.  It is only Vishnu who independently controls, commands, and propels  all  jivas  upto  and  including Brahma.  So He is “Niyantha”.   Again, He who cannot be completely grasped by our senses and evenby the Devatas presiding over the senses is Vishnu.

So, He is “Drusyatvat  Durjjititva”.  It is Vishnu who is in the heart

of everyone as  the Ruler within directing and controlling our thoughts and

our actions and  so  He  is  in everything, animate and inanimate, and thus

endows each thing  with its, his/her peculiar nature/property/capacity.  As

He has good characteristics  of  everything  and everyone, He is

Sarvayuthaha”.  Every hymn and every word denoting a characteristic primarily praise only Sri Vishnu as every attribute is in its inexhaustible fullness only in Him.  And He has these attributes which constitute His very nature, without the grace of any one  else.   And the Devatas obtained only a infinitesimal fraction of some of His attributes, only through His grace.

PADA THREE

Sarvasrayaha  -  Sri  Vishnu is the sole supporter of everything, animate and  inanimate  of all the worlds.  It is only He who is full of numberless qualities.   Purna  Gunaha  ? Each attribute is essentially true and each attribute is full only in Him.   Aksharaha   -   One  who knows  no destruction  of  any  kind.   Only He is “San”, free from all defects.  He alone  is the Independent  Cause of  all and nothing is the cause of Him.

So, He alone is Sat.  Again, He is “Hrdabjagaha” as He dwells in the Heart of  everyone  as the Ruler within.  Suryadi Bhaskaha” ? It is Narayana who gives  light  to  the  Sun  and  other shining ones. Only He is Prana as He directs  the  Devas  including  even  Prana,  the Deva of Breath ? “Pranaha Prerako Daivatairapi”.  Those not eligible for the five samskaras and those who can not  and  who are not eligible to do penance cannot know Him through the  Vedas  ? “Jneyo Navedaihi Sudradyai”.  He makes all tremble and so He is called Vajra.   He is really completely different from the jivas, the living beings.   Anya Jivitaha” ? He is always “Atyanta Jagadvilakshana”.

Certain  words  like  Master  can  be used to denote both Vishnu and others “Pratitvadi  Gunaiyuktaha  yet  such  words  primarily denote only Vishnu.

Though there are masters and masters, only Vishnu is the Supreme Eternal Master of all masters, having always all qualities of the masters in full.

But the other so called masters cease to be masters some day or the other.

And even when they are masters, the qualities of a master can be found to be  very limited, and they can act as Master only as long as Vishnu desires them to be so.  Only Vishnu who alone can save jiva from the woe of samsara is primarily known by words which can denote both Vishnu and others.

PADA FOUR

Even  words  which  as  a  rule denote only others in ordinary language and hence,  which  seem  to  the  ignorant  as incapable of denoting Sri Vishnu primarily,  denote Sri Vishnu only.  Words like “Avyakta”, “Thuki”, “Sunya” etc and sentences denoting commands and actions, all primarily denote only Sri  Vishnu.   Generally, Avyakta  is used to mean Mula prakriti, which is unmanifest  and  so  invisible.   That which is unmanifested must be most subtle.   The Vedas say that Sri Vishnu is the most subtle of subtle things (Anoraniyan  ?  ie.  Smaller  than  the  atom  ?  Anu of Anuus).

So, the word “Avyakta  denotes  Sri  Vishnu better than Mula prakriti.  Considering the way in which the word is derived, and also its root meaning, the word jiva also means one who makes / enables creature to live.  Again, the figurative use  admits  the  word  “Jiva”  to denote Him who has all “jivas” under his control  (such  usages  abound  in  practical life.  For the person selling “curd” is addressed as “O Curd” and he comes.  The man is called “curd” not because of any identity with curd but because the curd is at his disposal.

Similarly, Sri Vishnu is termed as “Jiva” not because of any identity but because He is the only Independent Dispenser of all jivas who are under His control).

“Dhana”  means,  in Sanskrit, wealth.  One who possesses wealth is called a “Dhani”.   And it does not mean a “Dhani” should always have his wealth or “Dhana” in his person.  If  he has wealth at his disposal, it is OK to call him a “Dhani”.  Likewise, the word “Dukhi” need not always mean one who has “Dukhi” or sorrow on his person.  One who has sorrow at his disposal can be called  a  “Dukhi”.   The  only  purusha that has sorrow at His disposal is Purushottama.   Only He can determine what “sorrow” a jiva should suffer from,  and  it  is  He who can save a jiva from the sorrow of samsara.  And again only He is  always  completely free from sorrow of all kinds.  So, “Dukhi”  primarily  means  Sri Vishnu.  Similarly, every word in Vedic text and the whole Vedic sentence denoting a command or karma denote primarily Sri Vishnu only.

Aharaha Sandhyam Upasita” is a sentence denoting a command.  This sentence means  “Do  worship in the form of the coded sandhyavandhanam everyday” (to please  the  Highest  Lord Vishnu).  Ahaha also means Surya, the Sun. Surya primarily  refers  to Vishnu as Sauris or Gnanis reach Him.  Sandhya is the meeting.   He who makes a jiva meet others is Sandhya and He is Vishnu, the Atma who determines whom a jiva should meet.  The word “upasita” means “sit close”.  The crow is called “Ka Ka” as it cries “Ka Ka”.  Similarly, the one who goes into street crying “Rama, Rama” is called by the word “Rama”. So, Lord Prajna who keeps calling the jiva “Sit Close”, “Sit Close” (so that He may  induce  sleep  in  us  by  His sweet embrace) is called “Sit Close” or “Upasita”.   So, every word in the above Karma Vakya denotes Sri Vishnu “Karma Vakyai Vachyaha”.

So, not only the whole sentence but every word relate to or denote Him.  He is  both  the  primary  cause  and  the  secondary  cause as He pervades in everything  and  every  action  is done only because Sri Vishnu directs the jiva  from  within  to  act.  His power and lordship is unlimited.  So, the Vedas speak of Him both as support and the supported “Yasmin Pancha Pancha Janaha  Akasascha  Pratistitaha  ?  the  support  is  denoted by the word “Yasmin  (He  in  whom)  and  the  five  persons  supported all are Vishnu Himself.   In  addition  to  the  secondary meaning got by giving secondary values  to  certain  words  in  Vedic texts, we can say that always the primary meaning  of  the word/sentence in the Vedas denote only Sri Vishnu when the highest  values  as given by the words met. And the Vedas themselves do say that they in toto are describing only Him ? “Sarve Vedoaha Yanpadamamayanti”.

Tasmevaikam  Jaanata,  Namaani  Sarvaani  Yamavishanti” ? So, He is “Ekaha Amitatmakhaha”.   He  is  also  Avantara  Karana  ie. One that is both the result  and  the cause at the very same time.  The Vedas declare “From Atma was  born  Akasha”  and  from  “Akasha  was  born  Vayu”.  As all the words primarily  denote  Sri  Vishnu,  Atma,  Akasha and Vayu must all denote Sri Vishnu. Here, Akasha is avaantara karana. If Atma means Vishnu, how can one born  of  Atma here akasha, also mean Vishnu? This is not absurd.  For, the Vedas  declare  that  Sri Vishnu entered everything soon after creating it, only  to  give  it  its special features and to enable its function.  After creating akasha, the space, He entered it Akasha.  From Atma, not only jada akasha  but  also  Akasha,  the  Antaryamin.  Sri Vishnu is also denoted by words  like  Prakriti  and  Sunya,  because  He makes the happiness of very wicked  people  nil  (and,  as  He  decreases  the happiness of very wicked people).  As He is full of infinite attributes, every word denotes only Sri Vishnu  primarily.  So, all words (1) words that appear to generally denote others, other than Vishnu (2) words that denote Vishnu and others (3) words like  “jiva”  and  “dukhi”  that  are  thought to denote only others and so appears  to  be  incapable  of  denoting  Vishnu  all denote primarily only Vishnu.   Such a knowledge is essential for a mumukshu to keep himself reminded always of God (Sri Vishnu only).

END OF SAMANVAYADHYAYA

AVIRODHYAYA

Summary meaning: (Sri Hari is completely free from all defects)

PADA ONE

Only the Vedas and Pancharatra agamas are true as verbal authorities.  Not being limited to time and authorship, they alone convey the right knowledge of God.   So religions based on texts opposed to Vedic and Pancharatra teachings are not trustworthy.  As they are not supported by Vedas, such false religions are not competent to deny Sri Vishnu’s authorship of the Universe and His numberless divinely blissful attributes.  It is wrong to say that Vedas can not be taken as authority as they say that inanimate things like Water, Earth etc spoke.  That is only figurative way of saying that deities presiding over inanimate things mentioned, spoke.  Some religions say that universe evolved out of nothing. Some religions say that universe evolved out of nothing and all this was created out of nothing. This is absurd. Nowhere has anyone seen anything being born of nothing. No doubt the Vedas say “This whole creation came out of Asat”.  But this Asat here can never mean “nothing”. For there are innumerable texts in Vedas declaring Narayana as Creator. And the Vedas cannot be contradictory.

Besides, the Vedas themselves declare that the entire Vedas proclaim only Him and no one else.  Evidently, Asat must mean Narayana and no one else.  Asat here means One who has no equal to Him ie.  He is “Eka” and “Advitiya”.  Asat means A + Sat i.e. who is denoted by the first letter “A” and the maximum “Sat” i.e. Only Independent Chetana (Narayana).  Such a usage is found in words like Chaturmukha Brahma ie. Who is four faced and who is also Brahma. Anantha Padmanabha denotes Vishnu as both Anantha and Padmanabha.

Similarly, Jiva, Pradhana, Rudra etc spoken of by Vedas as Creator, only means Vishnu.   For Vedas clearly say, Sri Hari alone is Independent, that He  alone  is  doer  of  every  action and that He is full of Blissful real attributes,  and  He  is  Creator.  The eternal Vedas, free from defects of human authorship, do not say anything that is not true.  Here, again, it is wrong to derive thereby the identity of all Devas and Sri Narayana. For through out  Vedas,  are found emphasising difference between each.  All the Devas are spoken of as being controlled by Vishnu.  Again, Vedas declare that Devas meditate upon Vishnu to get His grace.  The Vedas say that these Devas out of fear and respect for Him, obey Him and carry out orders entrusted to them. The Controller and the Controlled can never be the same. Moreover, Bhagavan Vedavyasa who is none other than Vishnu has said in many a sutra  that Vedas declare the difference between the jivas and Vishnu. More  than  all, the Vedas warn us against entertaining Abheda or Aikya jnana i.e. advises us not to entertain the knowledge that Vishnu and other jivas are the same.

PADA TWO

All religions not based on Sri Vedavyasa’s tenets are born out of ignorance and wrong understanding.   So, do not doubt the veracity of Vedas as reliable authorities  ONLY because they differ from the false teachings of Akshapada, Kanada, Samkhya, Jains, Buddha and Chavarka.

PADA THREE

The five elements, i.e. Pancha bhutas, their presiding deities and the whole universe  were  created  only  by  Lord Narayana .  And during pralaya, all these are drawn into Him alone. Rudra and others are neither creators nor destroyers. All the jivas are entirely different from Narayana. And all jivas are always, even after Moksha, under His control only.  The jiva is always, even in Moksha state, only a Pratibimba (or, reflection).  There is no slightest difference between any two of numberless forms of Lord Narayana.

PADA FOUR

The God of Breath, Mukhyaprana, too was created by Sri Vishnu.  All the senses and everything denoted by some name and having some form, all these have been created only by Sri Vishnu.

All  the  jivas  upto  Sri  Rudra  are  always  under  the control  of Sri Mukhyaprana.  And  Mukhyaprana  is always under the control of Sri Vishnu.

Sriman  Narayana  is the Highest Purusha having no one equal to Him.  He is completely  free from all defects.  The correct understanding of Vedas will show that nothing is inconsistent and wrong when we say that Sri Vishnu is endowed with numbeless Divine Blissful Attributes.

END OF AVIRODHYAYA

SADHANADHYAYA

PADA ONE

By doing good deeds  and  expecting fruits thereof, one cannot get final release/moksha. We can get only swarga.  Wicked deeds and omission of prescribed duties takes us only to Hell.  But wrong knowledge of God (and Moksha) throws you down into Eternal Hell.  Thinking jiva to be God and thinking that Mukta becomes one with jiva through aikya are worst sins leading only to Eternal Hell.  The true knowledge of God Janardhana  is quite  necessary  to  obtain  His  grace without which no one can get final moksha/liberation.  Hence,  cultivate  true  mature  devotion to  Him,  by developing  strong detachment from  worldly pleasures, perform the right worship to please Him by obtaining the right knowledge of Sri Vishnu  by  listening  to His glories from really devout people who believe Sri  Vishnu as one entirely different from Universe, animate and inanimate.

This is Sravana. Then do “Manana” i e.  Think  over  and over of His attributes  and  glories  as  told to you till you get firm faith that: 

1. The supremacy  of  Lord Vishnu over all . 

2. Vayu being jivottama

3. All  jivas,  even  after final liberation, under Sri Vishnu’s  mercy.  

Then,  always  meditate  upon Sri Vishnu as Atman ie. As Master and Ruler within, of all and as Brahman, i.e as abode of numberless Aprakrita  Kalyana  gunas.

 Sravana, Manana, Nidhidhyasana, can successfully be  done only when you love Lord Narayana more than your wife and children, and  more  than  you  love  yourself, thinking that anything other than His grace  is  only chaff.  At the same time, perform prescribed karmas of your order, without least expectation of its worldly fruits.

PADA TWO

Sri Vishnu controls and protects us and all other jivas, including Brahma always whether awake or sleeping, both here and in the other worlds.

Taking mercy on His devotees, He takes many forms which do not differ from Him in  any  way. He was, is and will ever be the only Supreme Master of all creation.   He is the Lord of Sri/Lakshmi.  There is no difference between one  limb of His and any other limb of His.  Sri Vishnu can see with His feet and run/walk  with His eyes because of His inestimable wealth of His divine  power/sakthi. So also, there is no difference between one attribute and  another attribute  of  His. This is possible because of his unlimited strength, power and bliss.  Only He can give moksha and none else.  One can get  final  liberation  i e.  Moksha by having true ripe devotion to Him characterized  by knowledge of Taratamya (ie. Gradation) that exists always among jivas, even in mukti.

PADA THREE

By men, Sri Vishnu must be meditated upon as Sat, Chit, Ananda, and Atma. He  is  Sat  since  He  is  the  Creator  of all and as He is free from all defects.  He is Chit because He is Gnanaswaroopi, having Complete knowledge of all : past, present, future of all in creation. He is Ananda as His body is full of unmixed Jnana and bliss and as He alone is capable of giving bliss  ever  to Lakshmi and all qualified jivas. He is the sole Atma, being the Master of all.  Men must NOT meditate upon Him as one supporting Swarga and Prthvi and as one giving light to all the lokas.  (Meditation is Dhyana and is different from mere knowledge).  So every one must try his best to know as many as he can of the attributes of the Lord mentioned in all Vedas .  And the devotee can also meditate on different forms of Lord, according to the purpose of the devotee.  Thus, to get good knowledge of Sat Sastras, Lord  Haygrivamurthy  is to be meditated upon. To be free from Mithya Jnana (Wrong  Knowledge),  to  defeat  one’s  enemies, to be cured from diseases, Laxmi  Narasimha  should  be meditated upon.  Men must always meditate upon Sri Vishnu as being always with Lakshmi and also as being waited upon by Brahma, Rudra and other devas.

The Devas meditate upon Him as the abode of several qualities.  The number of these qualities of Vishnu meditated by each Deva is according to his capacity.   Brahma alone is capable of meditating upon Sri Vishnu as the abode of all qualities mentioned in all the Vedas.

As there is difference in the capacity of meditating upon the Lord, there is consequently difference in the extent of realising the Lord in one’s own heart ie. in the Aparokshajnana experienced.

(The  utmost  a man/jiva on his part should do to be eligible for Moksha is to have this aparokshajnana without which no one can get Narayana’s Highest grace.   When  Sri  Vasudeva looks upon a jiva with such highest grace, the jiva gains moksha at once).

So, one desiring Moksha must go on doing to his best capacity Sravana, Manana, Nidhidhyasana till he sees the Lord in the recesses of his heart.

PADA FOUR

The  Purusharthas are obtained by one, only after he has had aparokshajnana  ie. Only after seeing God in Hrdayakasha.  He who has seen his Bimbamurthy is  not  affected in  this  world, or in other worlds that he may attain thereafter,  by  sins  already  committed  or  he  may unwittingly  commit thereafter.    But   good/bad deeds done after aparoksha jnana will increase/decrease  the  experiencing  of his bliss in mukti.  This does not mean that the jiva on account of his sins committed after aparokshajnana is not  able to enjoy full bliss.  The only difference is the intensity of his enjoying  it becomes a little less. This is compared to milk occupying less /more space according to the heat applied to it.  The quantity of milk does not increase. But the milk ebbs and occupies slightly a greater place.

Similar is the case of one enjoying Ananda in moksha.  The bliss/Ananda to be enjoyed  by  Devas after moksha is fixed according to rank of Devas and according to Taratamya and it never decreases.

END OF SADHANADHYAYA

PHALADHYAYA

PADA ONE

One  must  always meditate upon Narayana as full of blissful attributes, as the  greatest  of  all  and as the Master of all.  Even in the most adverse circumstances,  we must remember Sri Vishnu as our only Master.  Only then, we will realise Him in our heart.  The realisation of  Sri Vishnu, in our heart, makes  the  person free from enjoying fruits of all his actions, good  and  bad,  actions  already  done or going to be done.  But he has to finish  enjoying   the fruits of Prarabdha Karma. As soon as the fruits are enjoyed,  the  aparoksha  jnani, who has seen  Sri Vishnu in his own heart, becomes  eligible  for moksha (the Prarabdha  karma is that series of karma the fruits  of  which  have  begun  to  be  enjoyed  in  the janma  when aparokshajnana is gained).

PADA TWO

When eligible for moksha, a deva enters into a body of deva next higher to him according to taratamya/gradation that exists.  The lower deva enjoys bliss either staying in the body of higher deva or outside him as he wishes.  When it is time for higher deva to attain mukti, this higher deva, along with lower deva who has already entered him, enters his next superior deva  in  rank.  This goes on happening up to the four faced Brahma.  Brahma, in his  turn, enters Sri Vishnu and enjoys bliss quite different from that of Sri Vishnu.  The Ananda/Bliss each deva enjoys after moksha is according to jiva’s rank, according to taratamya, is fixed and depends upon the Lord.

At  the  time  of  his  death,  in  his very last birth, a man eligible for moksha, sees  the  top of his heart becoming lighted up.  With the help of this light,  and  being  reminded,  through His grace, of the path that he should  take,  the  jiva comes out of his body through Brahmanadi, reaching the crown of his head.  Afterwards, he gets moksha.  The devas, at the time of  release/mukti  do  not  throw  off  their  bodies.   A deva enters his immediately higher deva, retaining his body.  But when the deva is born in the world  (avatara), the deva leaves the body after avatara work is over.

But man, at the time of release, leaves this coarse body on earth, and gets a finer fresh body as soon as he enters the higher worlds.

PADA THREE

The  best among men who leave their body through Brahma Nadi go through the path  known  as  Archimarga  and  reach Vayu, Lord of  Bharathi.  Then Vayu leads  them to the Brahma in power-Karya Brahma.  They remain in Brahma loka for sometime. Then, after  getting upadesha from Brahma, they all reach Vasudeva  to  whom  they  are  led  by Brahma. The devas reach Vayu through Pranesamarga (or, through Garuda Sesha Marga) already mentioned i.e. by way of  one  deva entering his next superior etc.  Vayu leads the devas to Para Brahma  directly.   Lakshmi is always free from samsaric bonds and question of  her  moksha  never  arises.  Mother Lakshmi is always muktha ie. Nithya Muktha.   This  characteristic  of  being  Nithya Muktha is not seen in any jiva, including four faced Brahma.

PADA FOUR

Those who attain Sri Vishnu as aforesaid enjoy all that they wish to have.

They  enjoy  all  this  only through Sri Vishnu’s grace.  They have body of ananda  and  jnana,  though jnana and ananda vary from jiva to jiva.  These jivas  never  think of enjoying undesirable things.  Even these mukta jivas cannot  and  hence  do  not do the functions relating to Eight Functions of Creating,  Directing,  Preserving etc. A mukta jiva can order such of mukta jivas who are below him in rank.  Every mukta jiva takes pride and pleasure in  obeying  his  superiors and, of course, Sri Hari. Obeying his superiors and  Sri  Hari with all joy is the very innate nature of a mukta. The mukta jivas are free from sorrows of every kind.  They enjoy bliss which knows no increase  or  decrease. They never come back to be born in the world.  They enjoy eternal bliss.

Thus the essence of all Sat Sutras has been narrated by Sri Purna Prajna.

Let Lord of Sri be pleased with this grantha.  I bow again and again to Him who  is the Lord of Sri/Lakshmi and hence who is superior to her and who is worshipped  by  Four Faced Brahma, Indra and other deities and who is quite free  from  all  defects  and who is full of blissful heavenly qualities of excellence,which qualities themselves constitute His Divine Body.

Let Sri Hanumadh Bhima Madhvaantargata Ramakrishna Vedavyasa be pleased.

SRI KRISHNARPRAMASTU

END OF THE BOOK BY SRI C.S. NARAYANA RAO